Korczak coat of arms

Z Korczak Pro Memoria
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Korczak
Korczak XVII.png
Alternative names Ciffus, Ciphus, Karpie, Trzy Wręby, Wrębowie, Wręby
Motto FRANGES NON FLECTES (eng. Destroyed but not relentless)
Earliest mention 1142 (according to Paprocki) 1368 (written) 1432 (seal)
Bearers
Families List
Cities, Gminas, Counties Biłgoraj, Pruchnik, Szczebrzeszyn, Gmina Pruchnik, Gmina Goraj, Biłgoraj County, Kraśnik County

Korczak (Ciffus, Ciphus, Karpie, Trzy Wręby, Wrębowie, Wręby) - polish family crest with motto: FRANGES NON FLECTES (eng. Destroyed but not relentless). Coat of arms has Hungarian origins. Three hamades represent three rivers the Danube, Tisza (or Drava), and Sava. It was used by Counts Braniccy, Chołoniewscy, Drohojowscy and Komorowscy. The arms were confirmed in Lithuania at Union of Horodło in 1413. One of the trilogy by H. Sienkiewicz characters Michał Wołodyjowski was a bearer of Korczak; he was also based on Jerzy Wołodyjowski of Korczak.

Blazon

Modern blazon according to classical rules of blazoning:

Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. Helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or.

Blazon of older version of Korczak (pre 16th century):

Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. Helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crest: greyhound's head erased Argent between two annulets Argent, inside Gules, two round handles Argent.

Blazon according to Jan Długosz:

Corczakowije. Tres barras in campo rubeo defert;genus rutenicum. Hi prisco temporeciphum, et in eo canem sedentem deferebant;

In translate:

Korczak. Three bars in red field; Russian family. In ancient times goblet and the dog sitting inside it;

Blazon according to Józef Szymański:

(...) w polu czerwonym trzy wręby srebrne. Hełm z labrami z pokryciem srebrnym, a podbiciem zapewne czerwonym. Klejnot: między dwoma trzymaniami srebrnymi z czerwonym środkiem, głowa wyżła srebrna z językiem czerwonym.

In translate:

(...) Gules, three hamades Argent. Helmet with mantling Argen, lined probably Gules. Crest: greyhound's head Argent with tongue Gules between two handles Argent inside Gules.

Armorials

History and legends

See also: Tinctures and charges

Fragment of the fresco form Wielka Łomnica (Slovakia).
Seal of Dymitr of Goraj

History

According to B. Paprocki Korczak was firstly beared by Dukes of Slavonia. Some of them was from the House of Árpád, so they could have used red and silver bars as their arms.
Kasper Niesiecki describing the oldest Polish progenitors of the Korczak presents a man named Krystyn of Goraj, who lived in 1142 under the rule of Władysław II the Expatriate. Then he presents his son, also Krystyn, Lord of Kraśnik and brave knight under the date 1240. Unknown author of "Poem to the Honorable Lord Józef Wereszczyński..." says, that House of Wereszczyński [Korczak] was famous in Chełm Land in times of Kazimierz the Just (1179).
The first known image of Korczak coat of arms comes from Armorial Bellenville (1364-1386). Helmet with part of the crest is visible on seal of Dymitr of Goraj from 1390. Heraldic shield of Gorajski family is known from arms of Katarzyna of Bożydar from 1430. Early Korczak appears also on burial plate of bishop of Poznań Uriel Górka, who died in 1498. Furthermore it was mentioned in Armorial Gelre, The Great Armorial of Golden Fleece and Armorial Bergshammar. The oldest known seals came from 1431 and was used by Hrynko Klukowicz and Bohowityn.
The arms were confirmed in Lithuania at Union of Horodło in 1413, when House of Korczak adopted Lithuanian bojar called Czupa. "Gniazdo cnoty" (1578) mentions following families of Korczak in Grand Duchy: Woynowie, Kmitowie, dukes Boratyńscy, Turowie, Jeśmianowie, Horajnowie, Miszkowie, Bochowitynowie and posterity of Czupa: Sułtanowie, Ilniczowie i Mieleszkowie.
Bearers are largely made up of noble families from Red Ruthenia and Lesser Poland. Korczak appears in Insignia seu clenodia Regis et Regni Poloniae by Jan Długosz (1464–1480) so called "Jewels of Długosz".

Insignia seu clenodia Regis et Regni Poloniae

Text from Jewels of Długosz: "Corczakowye tres barras in campo rubeo defert Genus Ruthenicum; hic prisco tempore cifum et in eo canem sedentem deferebat Id Loduigus, Polonie et Ungarie rex, abhominatus immutat et Demetrio de Boźydar, regni Polonie vicethezaurario, arma regni Ungarie tradidit deferenda. In galea tamen defertur cifus et canis."


Legends

Pre-heraldic Stanice (singular Stanica) of Clan of Korczak according to Franciszek Piekosiński.
Coat of arms from burial plate of Uriel Górka.

I.First legend comes from Jewels of Długosz:

Id Ludovicus, Polonie et Hungarie rex, abominatus immutatuit, et Demetrio de Bozidar, Regni Polonie Vicethesaurario, arma regni Hungarie deferenda tradidit; in galea tamen defertur ciphus et canis.

It means that Korczak at first had cup with dog inside on shield and three rivers in crest. King Louis I of Poland and Hungary decorated Dymitr of Goraj by changing their places to make the crest look more similar to coat of arms of Hungary.

II. Second legend appears in "Herby Rycerstwa Polskiego" (16th century) and "Herbarz" by Kasper Niesiecki (19th century):

There was a Hungarian knight Zoard fighting under orders of Atilla.
After death of Hungarian Prince one of Zoard's ancestors [of Korczak] was chosen to be the next ruler. He refused and suggested coronation of Kaninus, member of an ancient and rich family. He was elected nad crowned. Name "Kaninus" translated from latin means "dog", so it was said that Hungarians had chosen a dog to be their lord.
New prince began to rule in a cruel and tyrant manner. People accused Korczak for that, so he dethroned and killed Kaninus. After that he cut off his head and ordered to show it to everyone.
Hungarians offered him the crown again, but he refused and shown them a different candidate.

In memory of killing the tyrant and fighting battles by rivers of kingdom, dogs head nad those rivers were added to his coat of arms, which previously was just a cup.


III. Third legend from "Herby, legendy, dawne mity" by M. Derwich and M. Cetwiński:

After Atilla's death Hungarians didn't know who should become their new king. In the end they decided that the first, who will come into specified room, will get the crown. By chance, the first being which entered it was a dog. Animal was crowned. During coronation feast new king was given meat without bones, which had been put in separate dish. The dog, in accordance with its nature, chose a bowl of bones. Clicker said "If you want to be the lord get rid of dog manners." and cut off his head. Regicide had to run through three rivers to save his life.

Barony Title

Korczak with baronial crown.

Title of baron was used in Poland, but not on feudal laws. Title was used by members of the royal council and the nobility holding the land on the knight's right directly from the monarch. The Barons were voivods, castellates, subcommunists, judges and choristers. Jan Długosz also used this title towards the representatives of the oldest knight families and ancient nobility. This group also includes all representatives of the Korczak clan, whose coat of arms is featured in "Clenodia" and in armorial "Arma baronum ...", which full name translates simply "Barons of the Kingdom of Poland, described by Jan Długosz".
In the 17th century, three constitutions prohibited using aristocratic titles by Polish nobility (in 1638, 1641 and 1673). Exceptions were titles of Lithuanian Dukes, whose durability was guaranteed by the Lublin Union (1569). The tightening resulted from the idea of equality of Polish nobility, which forbidden, not only using titles, but aslo granting orders and medals. However, the law did not prohibit granting titles to foreigners, or getting titles from other countries by Poles. The findings of the abovementioned constitutions were canceled in 1775.
During the Partitions of Poland many nobles bought or received titles of count or baron, but we also know cases of legalization of old baromial titles as in the case of Wielowieyscy of Półkozic or Czechowiczowie of Ostoya.

Etymology

Name of Korczak coat of arms probably comes from the bowl/vase in crest. The world "Korczak" is derived from the old Polish "korczak" or "korczag", which means a cup/wooden cup. According to the "Etymological dictionary of Polish language" by Aleksander Brückner, the word "korczag" was accepted by the Slavs at the end of the Proto-Slavic era. The Latin names "ciffus" and "ciphus" come from "scyphus", which also mean the cup. The word "scyphus" was borrowed by Romans from Greeks, in whose language it signified a two-ears drinking vessel. World "scyphus" was derived from the earlier term "skyphos".

Heraldic variations

Aristocratic variations

Boratyński

The coat was used by the Lithuanian Princely Boratyńscy family described by B. Paprocki in "Gniazdo cnoty".

Blazon: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. Helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or. Over the shield a mantle Gules doubled Argent, crowned with Princely Crown.

Korczak and its variations by Chrząński
Korczak and its variations by Chrząński-cont.

Branicki

Count title was supposed to have been given to Branicki in 18th century by Maria Theresa, but the documents was to disappear during the uprising in 1794. First known act is from 1839, when on 18 July, Władysław Grzegorz Branicki received the Russian count title (diploma form 27 June 1841). This title was confirmed in Russia on 9 March 1871 and approved in Galicia on 5 September 1873 to Władysław Branicki. There are three versions of this coat of arms:

Blazon I: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or. Supported by two griffins rampant Argent.

Blazon II: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon three helmets crowned. Crests: Crest I: Gules, monogram "M I" Or, escutcheon on the breast of a demi bicephalous eagle displayed sable imperially crowned, mantling Sable, lined Or. Crest II: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or, mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crest III: three Ostrich Feathers Argent, mantling Gules, lined Argent. Supported by two griffins rampant Argent. Motto "PRO FIDE ET PATRIA" below the shield.

Blazon III: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent collared Gules in vase Or.
Throne tapestry of Sigismund Augustus of Poland and Lithuania.

Chołoniewski

Galician title of the Count was granted on 30 March 1798 to brothers Ignacy, Rafał and Franciszek Ksawery Myszka Chołoniewscy of Choławiew, with a predicate of hoch- und wohlgeboren (high born and noble). The basis for the title were The offices of their father (Adam Chołoniewski, the castellan of Busk, starosta of Kołomyja and Szczurowiec) and the noble patent from 1775. Rafał's son son was Stanisław Chołoniewski. The title was confirmed in Russia on 28 January 1842 and 21 December 1849.

Blazon: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or.

Drohojowski

Coat of arms was granted on 7 February 1783 to Antoni, Jan and Wiktor Drohojowski with the Galician count title and the predicate hoch- und wohlgeboren (high born and noble). The basis for the grant was a 1775 patent, originating from senators, legitimacy, Galician domicil and attachment to the imperial house. The coat contains a shortened genealogical record of the host. Mother, Barbara Wolska, used Jelita coat of arms, the grandmother, Anna Brzuchowska, Pomian coat of arms, the great grandmother, Anna Marchocka, the coat of arms of Ostoja, and the grandmother, Marianna Rojowska, Cholewa coat of arms..

Sculpture from Château de Montrésor owned by Braniccy

Blazon: Quarterly I. Gules, three lances crossed in star Or; II. Gules, between two siege clamps Argent a sword in pale Proper; III. Gules, a buffalo's head caboshed Sable, pierced with a sword Proper.; IV. Gules, between an increscent Or and a decrescent Or a sword in pale Proper; over all an escutcheon Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon four helmets crowned. Crests: Crest I: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or, mantling Gules, lined Argent. Crest II: five Ostrich Feathers, two Argent between Gules, mantling Azure, lined Argent. Crest III: a demi goat rampant Or, mantling Gules, lined Argent. Crest IV: an arm embowed in armor holding in its hand a sword Proper, mantling Azure, lined Argent.

Komorowski

The title of Count of Liptów and Orawa was received by Piotr of Komorowo in 1469 from the Hungarian king Matthias. The title was only associated with the function of the administrator and extinguished with the death of Peter of Komorow, but in Galicia was recognized and confirmed on 13 April 1793 to Antonina Teresa Szeptycka and her children from the first marriage witch the castellan of Sanok Jakub Komorowski. On 19 October 1803 representatives of the second line of Komorowscy, sons of Michal, who was a nephew of Jakub, received the confirmation of the Count title. Representatives of the Lithuanian branch of Komorowski, of different origin, received the title on 1 December 1892 from the Ministry of the Interior of Austria-Hungary.

Blazon: Gules, three hamades in pale tapering Argent. The shield is crowned by a count crown, thereon helmet with mantling Gules, lined Argen. Crowned. Crest: a demi greyhound rampant Argent in vase Or.

Standard variations

Korczak II is beared by the following families: Cuper, Czupa, Czuryło, Daleszyński, Jeleński, Kotwicz, Łaniewski, Sielicki, Szumanski, Świdło and Ulczycki. Korczak V is used by the Procenko family. Korczak VI is owned by Koryteński, Korytyński and Kotowicz, Korczak VII is beared by: Łopata, Łopatka, Łopatyński, Łopot, Ptaszewicz, Wytyz, Wytyzcz. Bedlewicz coat emerged in the sixteenth century and was beared by the following families: Bedlewicz, Będlewicz, Będlewski. Dermont is used by Dermontowie, Dermondowie, Dyrmuntowie, Siliczowie and Siwiccy, and Hornowski by Hornowski family. Illiński coat of arms is beared by a Russian family Ilińscy, who came from the Polish Ilińscy of Lis coat of arms, Jaroszyński by family Jaroszyński, Konarzewski by Konarzewski, Łyszczyński by Łyszczyński-family of philosopher Kazimierz Łyszczyński executed for atheism in the seventeenth century. Osławski coat of arms is used by the Osławski and Osłowski families, Silicz by Siliczowie, Struś mentioned in "Gniazdo cnoty" was beared by family Struś from Komorów.